1821 – Peru declared its independence from Spain.
1865 – The American Dental Association proposed its first code of ethics.
1866 – The metric system was legalized by the U.S. Congress for the standardization of weights and measures throughout the United States.
1868 – The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was declared in effect. The amendment guaranteed due process of law.
1896 – The city of Miami, FL, was incorporated.
1914 – World War I officially began when Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
1932 – Federal troops forcibly dispersed the “Bonus Army” of World War I veterans who had gathered in Washington, DC. They were demanding money they were not scheduled to receive until 1945.
1941 – Plans for the Pentagon were approved by the U.S. House of Representatives.
1942 – L.A. Thatcher received a patent for a coin-operated mailbox. The device stamped envelopes when money was inserted.
1945 – A U.S. Army bomber crashed into the 79th floor of New York City’s Empire State Building. 14 people were killed and 26 were injured.
1951 – The Walt Disney film “Alice in Wonderland” was released.
1965 – U.S. President Johnson announced he was increasing the number of American troops in South Vietnam from 75,000 to 125,000.
1982 – San Francisco, CA, became the first city in the U.S. to ban handguns.
1994 – Kenny Rogers (Texas Rangers) pitched the 14th perfect game in major league baseball history.
1998 – Bell Atlantic and GTE announced $52 billion deal that created the second-largest phone company.
1998 – Serbian military forces seized the Kosovo town of Malisevo.
2006 – Researchers announced that two ancient reptiles had been found off Australia. The Umoonasaurus and Opallionectes were the first of their kind to be found in the period soon after the Jurassic era.
The National Association of the Advancement of Colored People’s (NAACP) Silent Protest Parade, also known as the Silent March, was held in New York City on Saturday, July 28, 1917, on 5th Avenue. This parade came about because the violence acted upon African Americans, including the race riots, lynching, and outages in Texas, Tennessee, Illinois, and other states.
One incident in particular, the East St. Louis Race Riot, also called the East St. Louis Massacre, was a major catalyst of the silent parade. This horrific event drove close to six thousand blacks from their own burning homes and left several hundred dead.
James Weldon Johnson, the second vice president of the NAACP, brought together other civil rights leaders who gathered at St. Phillips Church in New York to plan protest strategies. None of the group wanted a mass protest, yet all agreed that a silent protest through the streets of the city could spark the idea of racial reform and an end to the violence. Johnson remembered the idea of a silent protest from A NAACP Conference in 1916 when Oswald Garrison Villard suggested it. All the organizations agreed that this parade needed to be comprised of the black citizens, rather than a racially-mixed gathering. They argued that as the principal victims of the violence, African Americans had a special responsibility to participate in this, the first major public protest of racial violence in U.S. history.
The parade went south down 5th Avenue, moved to 57th Street and then to Madison Square. It brought out nearly ten thousand black women, men, and children, who all marched in silence. Johnson urged that the only sound to be heard would be the “the sound of muffled drums.” Children, dressed in white, led the protest, followed by women behind, also dressed in white. Men followed at the rear, dressed in dark suits.
The marchers carried banners and posters stating their reasons for the march. Both participants and onlookers remarked that this protest was unlike any other seen in the city and the nation. There were no chants, no songs, just silence. As those participating in the parade continued down the streets of New York, black Boy Scouts handed out flyers to those watching that described the NAACP’s struggle against segregation, lynching, and discrimination, as well as other forms of racist oppression.
James Weldon Johnson wrote in his 1938 autobiography, Along This Way, that “the streets of New York have witnessed many strange sites, but I judge, never one stranger than this; among the watchers were those with tears in their eyes.”
Jessie Carney Smith, Linda T. Wynn, Freedom Facts and Firsts: 400 Years of the African American Civil Rights Experience (Visible Ink Press, 2009); James Weldon Johnson, Along This Way: The Autobiography of James Weldon Johnson (New York: Penguin Classics, 2008); James Barron, “A History of Making Protest Messages Heard, Silently,” The New York Times (June 2012); “Snippet From History #2: The Negro Silent Protest of 1917,” http://www.usprisonculture.com/blog/2013/02/28/snippet-from-history-2-the-negro-silent-protest-of-1917/; “The Negro Silent Protest Parade,”
| You know Sandra Bland’s name. In the year after her well-publicized death, 815 people have died in jail awaiting trial. A third of them have died within the first three days of incarceration. Most were in jail for one reason only: They were too poor to pay bail. This reality is what terrified Tai Sherman’s mother, Tracey, and the reason she spent every dime she had – and a lot she didn’t – to get her daughter Tai out of jail.
Tai’s case is a classic example of what is wrong with money bail. Tai had no criminal record. She was arrested for driving away while a police officer was trying to arrest an acquaintance of hers for shoplifting $38 worth of stuff – dish soap and the like.
For this, Tai was slapped with $100,000 bail.
The good news is that money bail reform has a lot of momentum in California and has a good chance of happening this year – and Brave New Films has partnered with the Ella Baker Center and a number of other organizations to #EndMoneyBail this Summer in California.
And Brave New Films has even more work to share right now. In the coming weeks, we’ll be releasing “How Much Is Your Freedom Worth?”, a spoken word film that brings the injustice of the money bail system to verse. Next is “A Deal With the Devil” which showcases how defendants are compelled to take horribly unfair plea deals due to money bail. All of these films, plus our collaboration with Pretrial Justice Institute – “Breaking Down Bail“ – are available to screen now. All you have to do is organize a screening at your home, at your school, or with your faith community to see these films about this important issue. Please help us get the word out now about the movement to end money bail.