Fuel the fight against the Keystone XL oil pipeline


We’re gearing up for a showdown with the corporations who want to push the unnecessary and dangerous Keystone pipeline into existence.

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Very soon, a critical decision on the Keystone XL pipeline (KXL) will be made, for better or worse. If approved, the pipeline would transport tar sands oil — one of the dirtiest sources of oil on the planet — almost 2000 miles through the United States. But together, we can prevent this pipeline from being built. Will you help fuel our resistance to this disastrous project — and support all Greenpeace does to protect the environment — by making your strongest donation today?

The main component of tar sands, bitumen, is a heavy, tar-like, oil that is so dense it sinks in water. That makes it exceptionally difficult to clean up — much more difficult than conventional oil. The process of extracting tar sands from the ground and converting it into fuel involves strip mining giant swaths of land while creating loads of toxic waste and air and water pollution. Tar sands extraction also creates three times more global warming pollution than conventional crude oil. Tar sands oil needs to stay right where it is: in the ground.

If approved, the 2,000-mile-long KXL pipeline would carry tar sands oil from Canada down through the U.S. across to refineries on the Gulf of Mexico, putting all of the communities along its path at risk. The KXL pipeline was given the green light by Trump a few months ago, ignoring the objections of sovereign Indigenous nations, private landowners, and citizen groups that oppose it. But the project still has a lot of hurdles to overcome, including a battleground in Nebraska, where TransCanada — the corporation leading the project — needs approval for the pipeline’s route from the state’s Public Service Commission.

We are fighting this battle with a full-scale resistance on all fronts:

  • On Sunday August 6, we will stand with indigenous people and supporters, climate activists, pipeline fighters, and water protectors in Lincoln, Nebraska at the March to Give Keystone XL the Boot.
  • Next week, we will be joining our allies at a week-long public hearing being held by the Nebraska Public Service Commission (PSC), after which the PSC will be voting on whether to accept or reject TransCanada’s permit application.
  • So far, more than 38,500 people have signed our petition urging JP Morgan Chase to pull all funding from KXL.

Let’s show Trump and polluters everywhere what this community is made of. Fuel the resistance against KXL, the oil and gas industry, and this administration’s disastrous environmental policies with your strongest donation today.

In Solidarity,

Diana Best
Senior Climate & Energy Campaigner, Greenpeace USA

P.S. Nebraska may well be our last stand in our battle to stop KXL. Please make an urgently needed gift now to support all of our work and to join us in this fight before it’s too late.

Keeping guns away from abusers … Alliance for Gun Responsibility


True or false: The presence of guns in a domestic violence situation makes it five times more likely that someone will be killed by a domestic abuser.


we reached a great milestone in our push for commonsense gun policies here in Washington this month. Authorities are now required to notify domestic violence survivors when a convicted abuser, or a person against whom a protective order has been taken out, tries to buy a firearm.

We know that our advocacy is working – the enactment of House Bill 1501 is proof of that. But every year, too many people are shot and killed by their abusers – so it’s on us to keep calling for the kind of legislation that will save more lives. Take our quiz today to learn more about this issue.

we need your help if we’re going to be successful in our efforts to protect survivors. No one should ever be afraid of what their abuser will do if they gain access to a gun. Let’s make sure states nationwide pass policies like House Bill 1501 that better ensure survivors’ safety. Spend one minute taking our quiz to learn more about responsible gun legislation that will protect survivors of domestic violence.


Thank you,

Alliance for Gun Responsibility

John Delaney gives up Maryland House seat to play Don Quixote in Iowa till 2020

The Daily Kos Elections Morning Digest is compiled by David Nir, Jeff Singer, Stephen Wolf, and Carolyn Fiddler, with additional contributions from David Jarman, Steve Singiser, Daniel Donner, James Lambert, and David Beard.

• MD-06, MD-Gov: Ah, just what Democrats have been clamoring for: a rich moderate former banker who likes to punch at the left is running for president! All the luck in the world to Rep. John Delaney. Later, bro.

Anyhow, Delaney’s decision to leave Maryland politics behind for the national scene impacts two elections next year. One is the race for governor, which he’d been contemplating for some time. With Delaney gone, other candidates either in the contest or considering it now no longer have to worry that he might flood the race with his own money (estimated net worth: $215 million).

Beyond that, though, Delaney doesn’t have much of a base or even a profile outside of his congressional district, which includes a large portion of Montgomery County in the D.C. suburbs, as well as some heavily Republican territory in the ancestrally red northwest corner of the state. Based on those considerations alone, he probably wasn’t keeping anyone out of the primary for the right to take on GOP Gov. Larry Hogan.

Rather, it’s that House seat where Delaney’s departure will be more acutely felt. Maryland was one of just a handful of states where Democrats controlled the redistricting process ahead of the 2012 elections, and lawmakers redrew the GOP-held 6th District to make it more amenable to a Democratic candidate—specifically Rob Garagiola, the state Senate majority leader at the time. The old 6th had gone 58-40 for John McCain in 2008, but the current version voted 56-42 for Barack Obama that year.

In a surprise, though, Delaney, then a political newcomer, used his personal wealth and an endorsement from Bill Clinton to crush Garagiola54-29 in the primary. Delaney went on to unseat longtime Republican Rep. Roscoe Bartlett by a wide 59-38 margin, making his hold on this district look secure. Looks, however, proved deceiving, as Delaney nearly got a huge shock the following cycle, beating back an unheralded GOP opponent by just a single point in 2014.

That sort of result could prove worrisome for Democrats, who now are tasked with keeping this seat blue in another midterm year. Fortunately, the 2018 elections are shaping up to favor the Democrats, but Republicans will likely make a play for the 6th regardless, and Team Red has a large bench in northwest portion of the seat, which includes Hagerstown. But Democrats retain the advantage, as Hillary Clinton carried the district 55-40, a little bit better than Obama’s 55-43 win four years earlier.

And while Delaney was weighing a run for governor, several Montgomery County Democrats in fact began taking steps to prepare bids to succeed him. The furthest along are state House Majority Leader Bill Frick and Del. Aruna Miller, both of whom have already started raising real money.

It’s also possible that another very rich guy could try to follow in Delaney’s footsteps: Businessman David Trone, who owns a chain of liquor stores, had said he’s considering the race, too. Trone’s one prior stab at elective office didn’t go very well, though, as he spent $12 million last year seeking the neighboring 8th District (which was then open), only to lose the primary 34-27 to then-state Sen. Jamie Raskin.

Most of the Democratic candidates who end of running will probably hail from Montgomery County, though it’s possible that some from Frederick County could eye this race. As is often the case with open seats, we’re likely to hear from more names on both sides soon.


• AL-Sen: Alright, we’ve got another poll of the Aug. 15 GOP primary for Alabama’s special Senate election that’s unfolding in this odd, odd-numbered year. For the Raycom News Network, local Republican pollster Strategy Research finds appointed Sen. Luther Strange edging former state Supreme Court Chief Justice Roy Moore 35-33, with Rep. Mo Brooks a dismal third at 16. Strange’s standing is similar to the 33 percent that a recent poll from Cygnal, another GOP pollster from Alabama, gave him, though in that survey, Moore was further behind with 26 while Brooks also had just 16 percent there.

Strategy Research also has some numbers for the Democratic primary. Unfortunately, they find a mysterious Some Dude with a famous name—Robert Kennedy, Jr.—leading the one serious candidate, former U.S. Attorney Doug Jones, 49-28. Jones is a very long long-shot, but Kennedy is a no-shot, so hopefully Jones is spending whatever he’s got in these last couple of weeks to boost awareness of his campaign. If no one clears 50 percent in either primary, the top two vote-getters will advance to a Sept. 26 runoff, but if this poll is correct, Kennedy is on the verge of walking away with the Democratic nomination.

• MI-Sen: The Trafalgar Group, a Republican pollster, has released a survey of a hypothetical matchup between Democratic Sen. Debbie Stabenow and Republican Robert Ritchie (aka Kid Rock) and find Stabenow trailing 49-46. Unsurprisingly, they also find … do we call him Ritchie on second reference? Kid Rock? Just “Rock”? oy … they also find the vulgar singer-songwriter and vocal Trump supporter dominating in a GOP primary with 50 percent of the vote. (None of the actual declared candidates breaks out of the single digits.) Mr. Rock recently said he’d announce whether he’ll actually challenge Stabenow “in the next six weeks or so,” which would give him until a little bit after Labor Day to decide.


• SC-Gov: Well, no one seems to be particularly afraid of Henry McMaster, the guy who became governor of South Carolina after Trump beamed up Nikki Haley to serve as his U.N. ambassador. Lt. Gov. Kevin Bryant, who ascended to McMaster’s post when McMaster got bumped upstairs, just announced that he, too, would join the GOP primary, which also features former state health department chief Catherine Templeton. Bryant, who was a state senator until he was promoted this year, adds that he plans to self-fund “a significant amount,” though he didn’t offer a specific dollar-figure.

McMaster’s been weakened by an ongoing—and expanding—corruption investigation; while he hasn’t been named as a target, his longtime consultant is in the crosshairs, and the probe hasn’t reflected well on the governor. In another state, Bryant’s entry might actually have been a rare bit of good news for an embattled office-holder like McMaster, since crowded nomination battles usually benefit incumbents. But as we’ve noted before, there’s no getting saved by the clown car in South Carolina: If no candidate takes a majority of the vote, then the top two move on to a runoff.


• AZ-02: Rep. Raul Grijalva, the longest-serving Democrat in Arizona’s congressional delegation, has endorsed Mary Matiella, a former assistant secretary of the Army, in the race to challenge GOP Rep. Martha McSally. Interestingly, Grijalva chose Matiella over Ann Kirkpatrick, a former House colleague who used to represent the 1st District but is now seeking a comeback in the 2nd. Also running is former state Rep. Matt Heinz, the Democrats’ 2016 nominee.

• IL-06: GOP Rep. Peter Roskam is a tough campaigner and a monster fundraiser (he pulled in an eye-popping $833,000 in the second quarter alone), but he nevertheless keeps attracting new Democratic opponents. The latest is businesswoman Becky Anderson, a city council member in Naperville, a city of 147,000. Interestingly, of the half-dozen other Democrats running here, five are women, making Anderson the sixth.

Other Races

• TX-AG: Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton, who was indicted two years ago on charges of securities fraud, is finally set to go on trial on Dec. 11. However, two prior trial dates were previously cancelled due to disputes between prosecutors and Paxton, so don’t book any non-refundable plane tickets just yet. Paxton, a Republican, is accused of misleading investors in two companies he had solicited funds for without disclosing that he was getting compensated by those same firms, prior to getting elected to his current post. Paxton has long denied the allegations and insists he will run for a second term as attorney general next year.

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Democratic Sen. Jon Tester draws his most significant GOP challenger yet in Montana

The Daily Kos Elections Morning Digest is compiled by David Nir, Jeff Singer, Stephen Wolf, and Carolyn Fiddler, with additional contributions from David Jarman, Steve Singiser, Daniel Donner, James Lambert, and David Beard.


• MT-SenOn Monday, Montana state Auditor Matt Rosendale kicked off his campaign against Democratic Sen. Jon Tester, giving the incumbent his most prominent Republican challenger to date. Rosendale won his first term as auditor just last year, but had previously served in the legislature for six years, including a stint as state Senate majority leader. Rosendale’s announcement video promises he’ll fight for the Trump-Pence agenda, which is unsurprising rhetoric in a state Trump won by 56-35.

Despite having the distinct accent of his native Baltimore, some Republicans hope Rosendale’s folksy image could help neutralize Tester’s brand of being an everyday Montanan. A staunch conservative, Rosendale is probably best known for filming a 2014 campaign ad where he shot down a “government drone” to bemoan big government. That race, which was for Montana’s sole House district, saw Rosendale take a close third place in the primary for what was then an open seat.

However, that 2014 race also saw Rosendale raise little money. While his self-loan of $1.3 million kept him in contention that year, a Senate race against a Democratic incumbent is a whole other ballgame. Rosendale will either need to write himself a much larger check or step up his fundraising to be a viable contender next year. Nevertheless, Rosendale can already count on one relatively influential ally in the primary: The hardline anti-tax group Club for Growth endorsed his candidacy almost immediately.

Rosendale faces state Sen. Albert Olszewski and businessman Troy Downing in the GOP primary, but neither rival raised much money in the second quarter. Meanwhile, Yellowstone County District Judge Russell Fagg has formed an exploratory committee, but previously said he won’t announce whether he’ll run until he steps down from the bench in October.


• AL-Sen: The Senate Leadership Fund’s latest ad in Alabama’s Senate special election GOP primary again hammers Rep. Mo Brooks for saying “I don’t think you can trust Donald Trump with anything he says.” Of course, they once more conveniently leave out that Brooks’ comment came amid the GOP primary and not the general election last year. The spot then pivots to slam Brooks for voting to “cut off funding to fight ISIS” while “siding with Nancy Pelosi and the liberals.”

• MI-Sen: Target-Insyght, polling for MIRS, gives us our first independent survey of a hypothetical Senate matchup between Democratic Sen. Debbie Stabenow and musician Kid Rock, a Republican whose real name is Robert Ritchie. The pollster shows Stabenow with a 50-42 lead over Ritchie, which is a little too close for comfort for a three-term incumbent against a celebrity who would be a first-time candidate if he runs. Target-Insyght also says Ritchie has a double-digit lead in the GOP primary, though his would-be rivals likely lack much name recognition at this point.

The only other recent survey was from the GOP outfit Trafalgar Group, which had Ritchie ahead 49-46. With so little polling, it’s hard to tell just how truly vulnerable Stabenow is against a Republican who would be an unconventional candidate if he chooses to run. However, after Donald Trump eked out a razor-thin victory in last year’s presidential race in Michigan, Democrats can’t afford to rest easy in this swing state.

• MO-Sen: Republican Rep. Ann Wagner’s surprising decision to not run for Senate next year shook up the GOP primary and left state Attorney General Josh Hawley as the presumptive frontrunner for the nomination, although he hasn’t formally joined the race yet. However, Wagner is not going quietly into the night after she came just shy of outright endorsing state Rep. Paul Curtman, whose campaign is still in the “exploratory” phase. Wagner praised his candidacy on Twitter, while state Rep. Marsha Haefner had previously said that Wagner encouraged her to run. Wagner won’t be on the ballot in next year’s Senate primary, but it sure doesn’t sound like she’s eager to have Hawley as Team Red’s nominee against Democratic Sen. Claire McCaskill.

• PA-Sen: Republican Rep. Lou Barletta has been considering whether to run for Senate next year against Democratic incumbent Bob Casey, and the Associated Press reported on Monday that Barletta has told party leaders that he has decided to run, according to an anonymous source “familiar with the discussions.” Barletta himself stated that he will announce his decision in a few weeks, while a spokesperson also promised an announcement “in the near future.” If Barletta does jump into the race, he’d give Casey his most prominent opponent thus far in this evenly divided swing state.


• IA-Gov, IA-01: AFSCME Council 61, which represents more than 40,000 public employees across Iowa, has waded into the crowded 2018 Democratic primary for governor by endorsing state Sen. Nate Boulton. Boulton has a close relationship with organized labor and made a name for himself earlier this year as a leading opponent of the GOP’s new law that limits collective bargaining rights for state workers, so his winning support from unions is unsurprising.

AFSCME 61 also threw their backing to state Rep. Abby Finkenauer, who is seeking the Democratic nomination to face GOP Rep. Rod Blum in Iowa’s 1st Congressional District. That House seat, which contains Dubuque and Cedar Rapids, favored Trump 49-45.

• KS-Gov: Despite last week’s news that Trump will appoint Republican Gov. Sam Brownback to his administration, Lt. Gov. Jeff Colyer’s path to the GOP gubernatorial nomination next year doesn’t look like it’ll get much easier even if he gets elevated to the governor’s office soon. Secretary of State Kris Kobach already announced that Colyer’s pending promotion doesn’t “fundamentally change[] the dynamic” of the race, and the two other major primary candidates also don’t sound ready to back down.

Businessman Wink Hartman recently said via email that a possible Colyer candidacy reinforced his desire to run for governor to fix “the mess” that his own party created in Topeka. Meanwhile, former state Sen. Jim Barnett conveyed that he thought Kobach and Colyer could split the arch-conservative vote and allow a relative moderate like himself to prevail in next year’s primary. In a state where the GOP has waged civil war with itself over Brownback’s failed experiment in tax cut radicalism, a divided primary field is about the only thing we can count on happening next year.

• NY-Gov: Syracuse Mayor Stephanie Miner faces term-limits at the end of 2017, and the Democratic incumbent has frequently been mentioned as a possible candidate for higher office. Miner once again refused to rule out running for governor, and she recently had especially harsh words for Gov. Andrew Cuomo, a fellow Democrat. Miner castigated Cuomo for the sorry state of infrastructure in New York, a problem that has received increased scrutiny amid recent horror stories about the overcrowded subway in New York City.

Miner said she will take her time in reaching a decision, but she really can’t afford to wait much longer. Cuomo already had a staggering $26 million in cash-on-hand available at the end of June, and New York is one of the most expensive states in which to run TV ads, thanks to the pricey New York City media market. Public dissatisfaction with key government services like transportation and Cuomo’s instrumental effort to prevent Democrats from running the state Senate could give a more progressive primary challenger an opening. However, Miner would have her work cut out for her if she challenges the two-term governor.

• OH-Gov: Buckeye State Republicans have a crowded primary for next year’s open gubernatorial contest to succeed term-limited GOP Gov. John Kasich, and the conservative group American Freedom Builders gives us a glimpse at the horse race with a poll from the GOP outfit Tarrance Group. This survey finds state Attorney General Mike DeWine out in first with 42 percent, Secretary of State Jon Husted at 18 percent, Lt. Gov. Mary Taylor at 11 percent, and Rep. Jim Renacci at 5 percent in the Republican primary. These numbers represent only a small drop in DeWine’s lead since Tarrance’s late-January poll, where he beat Husted 47-18.

If this poll is accurate, DeWine has to be liking that he’s still cruising to a dominant plurality six months later, but the poll also gives his three major opponents reason for hope. Their name recognition is far lower than his, meaning they could have much more room to grow than DeWine does. Indeed, while only 4 percent of primary respondents said they hadn’t heard of DeWine, who previously served in the U.S. Senate, a majority said they weren’t familiar with Taylor or Renacci. There’s still a long way to go until next year’s primary, and DeWine’s advantage doesn’t appear insurmountable, but he’s nonetheless looking like the frontrunner at this early stage in the race.


• MD-06: Democratic Rep. John Delaney only announced Friday that he would retire from the House next year to run for president, but local politicians have been preparing for an open seat race for a while. Two Democrats, state Del. Aruna Miller and state House Majority Leader Bill Frick, have been raising money for an open seat race for months, and both have confirmed that they’re running here.

However, these two Montgomery County politicians are unlikely to have the Democratic primary to themselves. Businessman David Trone, who spent an astounding $12 million of his own money in his unsuccessful quest for the neighboring 8th District last year, has been flirting with a run for this seat for a while. Trone, who has also been eyeing a bid for the Montgomery County executive’s office, says he’ll decide what he’s doing soon. State Sen. Roger Manno said back in May that he was interested, and he’s used the following months to raise his profile in the district, though he hasn’t announced he’s in yet.

Clinton carried this seat, which includes part of the D.C. suburbs, Frederick, and the heavily Republican northwest, 55-40. However, Delaney had a shockingly close call in 2014, and a strong Republican could put up a fight here. Kelly Schultz, a former delegate who serves as Maryland’s secretary of Labor, Licensing and Regulation, says she’s interested. Amie Hoeber, a former official in the Department of the Army who lost to Delaney 56-40 last year, also says she’s thinking about another bid. Hoeber’s wealthy husband, Qualcomm co-founder Mark Epstein, financed a super PAC called Maryland USA last time that spent a total of $3.5 million to aid her in the primary and in the general election.

• OH-16: State Rep. Tom Patton announced on Monday that he would run for the House in this northeastern Ohio district, which sprawls from the Cleveland suburbs to Canton. Patton currently serves as majority whip and was previously the state Senate majority leader until term limits forced him to step down. The legislator’s long experience and leadership roles could give him key connections, but might also make him vulnerable against an outsider candidate in the age of Trump.

Despite Trump’s punishing 56-39 margin in the 16th meaning the GOP is likely heavily favored to retain this open seat, Patton is surprisingly only the second notable Republican to jump into the race. He’ll face fellow state Rep. Christina Hagan in next year’s primary, and it’s possible that others could still join them.

• UT-03: Outside groups are starting to put some money into the Aug. 15GOP primary for the special election in Utah’s 3rd Congressional District, which became vacant earlier this year when Republican Jason Chaffetz resigned. A mystery super PAC called Conservative Utah is spending $120,000 on a TV ad boosting businessman Tanner Ainge, whom they call “the only anti-tax candidate” while slamming ex-state Rep. Chris Herrod and Provo Mayor John Curtis as tax hikers.

The Senate Conservatives Fund, meanwhile, is shelling out $51,000 for their own TV ad backing Herrod, whom they’d previously endorsed, though their spot doesn’t appear to be online. That’s on top of a $123,000 pro-Herrod expenditure from a group named the National Horizon PAC, which UtahPolicy.com says is “loosely affiliated with the Club for Growth.” That money’s being spent on mailers and radio ads.


• New York, NY Mayor: Even though New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio has looked unusually weak since almost from the time he took office in 2014, this year’s filing deadline has come and gone with no major challengers emerging, either in the Democratic primary or the general election. Politico notes that no other Democrats have even been polledagainst de Blasio, whose least unknown opponent, former City Councilman Sal Albanese, has raised just $124,000, compared to $4.8 million for the mayor.

Despite his advantageous position, de Blasio has asked election officials to provide him with the maximum in allowable matching funds: an additional $2.9 million, on top of the $958,000 he received automatically. De Blasio has to demonstrate that the other candidates represent more than “minimal opposition,” which he’s trying to do by, among other things, noting that one Albanese tweet got 95 likes and 38 retweets. Hizzoner should be very afraid!

Meanwhile, a new Quinnipiac survey finds de Blasio utterly swamping his likely Republican foe, Staten Island Assemblywoman Nicole Malliotakis, by a 57-22 margin. In a matchup with former Fox News contributor Bo Dietl running as an independent, de Blasio still cruises with 52 percent, while Malliotakis gets 15 and Dietl just 11. Snooze.

Grab Bag

• Where Are They Now?: Former Maricopa County Sheriff Joe Arpaio, a Republican who finally lost re-election last fall to Democrat Paul Penzone after a 24-year reign of terror, was found guilty of criminal contempt of courtby a federal judge on Monday and could face up to six months in prison. The judge determined that Arpaio, who made a career of abusing immigrants and prisoners, had willfully violated an earlier court order instructing him not to detain migrants who were not suspected of any crimes. Arpaio has vowed to appeal, claiming the original order was unclear.

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on this day … 8/2 1939 – U.S. President Roosevelt signed the Hatch Act. The act prohibited civil service employees from taking an active part in political campaigns. 

1776 – Members of the Continental Congress began adding their signatures to the Declaration of Independence.

1791 – Samuel Briggs and his son Samuel Briggs, Jr. received a joint patent for their nail-making machine. They were the first father-son pair to receive a patent.

1824 – In New York City, Fifth Avenue was opened.

1858 – In Boston and New York City the first mailboxes were installed along streets.

1861 – The United States Congress passed the first income tax. The revenues were intended for the war effort against the South. The tax was never enacted. 

1887 – Rowell Hodge patented barbed wire.

1892 – Charles A. Wheeler patented the first escalator.

1921 – Eight White Sox players were acquitted of throwing the 1919 World Series.

1926 – John Barrymore and Mary Astor starred in the first showing of the Vitaphone System. The system was the combining of picture and sound for movies.

1938 – Bright yellow baseballs were used in a major league baseball game between the Brooklyn Dodgers and the St. Louis Cardinals. It was hoped that the balls would be easier to see.

1939 – Albert Einstein signed a letter to President Roosevelt urging the U.S. to have an atomic weapons research program.

1939 – U.S. President Roosevelt signed the Hatch Act. The act prohibited civil service employees from taking an active part in political campaigns.

1943 – The U.S. Navy patrol torpedo boat, PT-109, sank after being attacked by a Japanese destroyer. The boat was under the command of Lt. John F. Kennedy.

1945 – The Allied conference at Potsdam was concluded.

1964 – The Pentagon reported the first of two North Vietnamese attacks on U.S. destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin.

1983 – U.S. House of Representatives approved a law that designated the third Monday of January would be a federal holiday in honor of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The law was signed by President Reagon on November 2.

1987 – “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” was re-released. The film was 50 years old at the time of its re-release.

1990 – Iraq invaded the oil-rich country of Kuwait. Iraq claimed that Kuwait had driven down oil prices by exceeding production quotas set by OPEC.

1995 – China ordered the expulsion of two U.S. Air Force officers. The two were said to have been caught spying on military sights.