1739 – Thomas Coram was granted a Royal Charter from George II so a “hospital for the maintenance and education of exposed and deserted young children” in Londond, England.
1777 – American troops defeated British forces in Saratoga, NY. It was the turning point in the American Revolutionary War.
1787 – On October 17, 1787 Prince Hall submitted, to the State Legislature of Boston, Massachusetts, a petition asking for equal educational rights. His petition was not granted.
1871 – President Grant suspended the writ of habeas corpus and declared martial law in nine South Carolina counties affected by Klan disturbances.
1888 – Capital Savings Bank of Washigton, D.C., the first Black bank, opened in Washington, D.C. The Savings Bank of the Order of True Reformers (Richmond, Va.) was chartered on March 2, 1888.
1888 – The first issue of “National Geographic Magazine” was released at newsstands.
1931 – Al Capone was convicted on income tax evasion and was sentenced to 11 years in prison. He was released in 1939.
1933 – “News-Week” appeared for the first time at newsstands. The name was later changed to “Newsweek.”
1933 – Dr. Albert Einstein moved to Princeton, NJ, after leaving Germany.
1945 – Colonel Juan Peron became the dictator of Argentina after staging a coup in Buenos Aires.
1973 – The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) began an oil-embargo against several countries including the U.S. and Great Britain. The incident stemmed from Western support of Israel when Egypt and Syria attacked the nation on October 6, 1973. The embargo lasted until March of 1974.
1978 – U.S. President Carter signed a bill that restored full U.S. citizenship rights to Confederate President Jefferson Davis.
1979 – Mother Teresa of India was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
1987 – U.S. First Lady Nancy Reagan underwent a modified radical mastectomy at Bethesda Naval Hospital in Maryland.
1989 – An earthquake measuring 7.1 on the Richter Scale hit the San Francisco Bay area in California. The quake caused about 67 deaths, 3,000 injuries, and damages up to $7 billion.
1994 – Israel and Jordan initialed a draft peace treaty.
1994 – The Angolan government and rebels agreed to a peace treaty that ended their 19 years of civil war.
1997 – The remains of revolutionary Ernesto “Che” Guevara were laid to rest in his adopted Cuba, 30 years after his execution in Bolivia.
2000 – In New York City, Madame Tussaud’s Wax Museum opened to the public. The 42nd Street location joined Tussaud’s other exhibitions already in London, Hong Kong, Amsterdam and Las Vegas.
2000 – Patrick Roy (Colorado Avalanche) achieved his 448th victory as a goalie in the NHL. Roy passed Terry Sawchuck to become the record holder for career victories.
2001 – Israel’s tourism minister was killed. A radical Palestinian faction claimed that it had carried out the assassination to avenge the killing of its leader by Israel 2 months earlier.
2001 – Pakistan placed its armed forces on high alert because of troop movements by India in the disputed territory of Kashmir. India said that the movements were part of a normal troop rotation.
2001 – Italian priest Giuseppe “Beppe” Pierantoni was kidnapped by the terrorist group the “Pentagon.” He was released on April 8, 2002.
2003 – In the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration approved a drug, known as memantine, to help people with Alzheimer’s symptoms.
2003 – In Taipei, Taiwan, construction crews finished 1,676-foot-tall-building called Taipei 101. The building was planned to open for business in 2004.
2003 – In northwest England, the Carnforth railway station reopened as a heritage center.