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on this day 11/23


1765 – Frederick County, MD, repudiated the British Stamp Act.

1835 – Henry Burden patented the horseshoe manufacturing machine.

1889 – The first jukebox made its debut in San Francisco, at the Palais Royale Saloon.

1890 – Princess Wilhelmina became Queen of the Netherlands at the age of 10 when her father William III died.

1897 – Many patents are developed in response to the frustration involved in having to perform a repetitive task in order to complete a more important one. For John L. Love, this repetitive task was having to stop writing notes or letters in able to pull out his knife to whittle his pencil down to a point again. On November 23, 1897, Love patented the pencil sharpener blackfacts.com

1936 – The first edition of “Life” was published.

1943 – During World War II, U.S. forces seized control of Tarawa and Makin from the Japanese during the Central Pacific offensive in the Gilbert Islands.

1945 – The U.S. wartime rationing of most foods ended.

1948 – Dr. Frank G. Back patented the “Zoomar” lens.

1961 – The Dominican Republic changed the name of its capital from Ciudad Trujillo to Santo Domingo.

1971 – The People’s Republic of China was seated in the United Nations Security Council.

1979 – In Dublin, Ireland, Thomas McMahon was sentenced to life imprisonment for the assassination of Earl Mountbatten.

1980 – In southern Italy, approximately 4,800 people were killed in a series of earthquakes.

1983 – The first Pershing II missiles were deployed in West Germany. In response, the U.S.S.R. broke off International Nuclear Forces (INF) talks in Geneva.

1985 – Larry Wu-tai Chin, a retired CIA analyst, was arrested and accused of spying for China. He committed suicide a year after his conviction.

1985 – Gunmen hijacked an Egyptian jetliner en route from Athens to Cairo. The plane was forced to land in Malta.

1986 – In Manila, President Aquino dismissed Defense Minister Enrile.

1989 – Lucia Barrera de Cerna, a housekeeper who claimed she had witnessed the slaying of six Jesuit priests and two other people at the Jose Simeon Canas University in El Salvador, was flown to the U.S.

1991 – Yugoslavia’s rival leaders agreed to a new cease-fire, the 14th of the Balkan civil war.

1992 – The play “Someone Who’ll Watch Over Me” opened.

1994 – About 111 people, mostly women and children, were killed in a stampede after Indian police baton-charged tribal protesters in the western city of Nagpur. 

1998 – The tobacco industry signed the biggest U.S. civil settlement. It was a $206-billion deal to resolve remaining state claims for treating sick smokers. 

1998 – A U.S. federal judge rejected a Virginia county’s effort to block pornography on library computer calling the attempt unconstitutional.

2010 – North Korea shelled Yeonpyeong Island

2014 – The shooting of Tamir Rice, a 12-year-old African-American boy (June 25, 2002 – November 23, 2014), occurred on November 22, 2014, in Cleveland, Ohio. Two police officers, 26-year-old Timothy Loehmann and 46-year-old Frank Garmback, responded after receiving a police dispatch call “of a male black sitting on a swing and pointing a gun at people” in a city park blackfacts.com

 

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On this Day … Moby Dick Published


On this day in 1851, Moby-Dick, a novel by Herman Melville about the voyage of the whaling ship Pequod, is published by Harper & Brothers in New York. Moby-Dick is now considered a great classic of American literature and contains one of the most famous opening lines in fiction: “Call me Ishmael.” Initially, though, the book about Captain Ahab and his quest for a giant white whale was a flop.

Herman Melville was born in New York City in 1819 and as a young man spent time in the merchant marines, the U.S. Navy and on a whaling ship in the South Seas. In 1846, he published his first novel, Typee, a romantic adventure based on his experiences in Polynesia. The book was a success and a sequel, Omoo, was published in 1847. Three more novels followed, with mixed critical and commercial results. Melville’s sixth book, Moby-Dick, was first published in October 1851 in London, in three volumes titled The Whale, and then in the U.S. a month later. Melville had promised his publisher an adventure story similar to his popular earlier works, but instead, Moby-Dick was a tragic epic, influenced in part by Melville’s friend and Pittsfield, Massachusetts, neighbor, Nathaniel Hawthorne, whose novels include The Scarlet Letter.

After Moby-Dick‘s disappointing reception, Melville continued to produce novels, short stories (Bartleby) and poetry, but writing wasn’t paying the bills so in 1865 he returned to New York to work as a customs inspector, a job he held for 20 years.

Melville died in 1891, largely forgotten by the literary world. By the 1920s, scholars had rediscovered his work, particularly Moby-Dick, which would eventually become a staple of high school reading lists across the United States. Billy Budd, Melville’s final novel, was published in 1924, 33 years after his death.

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on this day … 11/2 1983 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan signed a bill establishing a federal holiday on the third Monday of January in honor of civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. 


1721 – Peter the Great (Peter I), ruler of Russia, changed his title to emperor.

1776 – During the American Revolutionary War, William Demont, became the first traitor of the American Revolution when he deserted.

1783 – U.S. Gen. George Washington gave his “Farewell Address to the Army” near Princeton, NJ.

1883 – Thomas Edison executed a patent application for an electrical indicator using the Edison effect lamp (U.S. Pat. 307,031).

1889 – North Dakota and South Dakota were admitted into the union as the 39th and 40th states.

1895 – In Chicago, IL, the first gasoline powered car contest took place in America.

1903 – Business and civic leader, Maggie L Walker, opens the St Luke Penny Savings Bank in Richmond, VA, blackfacts.com

1917 – British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour expressed support for a “national home” for the Jews of Palestine.

1920 – The first commercial radio station in the U.S., KDKA of Pittsburgh, PA, began regular broadcasting.

1921 – Margaret Sanger’s National Birth Control League combined with Mary Ware Denetts Voluntary Parenthood League to form the American Birth Control League.

1930 – Haile Selassie was crowned emperor of Ethiopia.

1930 – The DuPont Company announced the first synthetic rubber. It was named DuPrene.

1937 – The play “I’d Rather be Right” opened in New York City.

1947 – Howard Hughes flew his “Spruce Goose,” a huge wooden airplane, for eight minutes in California. It was the plane’s first and only flight. The “Spruce Goose,” nicknamed because of the white-gray color of the spruce used to build it, never went into production.

1948 – Harry S. Truman defeated Thomas E. Dewey for the U.S. presidency. The Chicago Tribune published an early edition that had the headline “DEWEY DEFEATS TRUMAN.” The Truman victory surprised many polls and newspapers. (Illinois>

1959 – Charles Van Doren, a game show contestant on the NBC-TV program “Twenty-One” admitted that he had been given questions and answers in advance.

1960 – In London, the novel “Lady Chatterly’s Lover,” was found not guilty of obscenity.

1962 – U.S. President Kennedy announced that the U.S.S.R. was dismantling the missile sites in Cuba.

1963 – South Vietnamese President Ngo Dihn Diem was assassinated in a military coup.

1966 – The Cuban Adjustment Act allows 123,000 Cubans to apply for permanent residence in the U.S.

1979 – Joanna Chesimard, a black militant escaped from a New Jersey prison, where she’d been serving a life sentence for the 1973 murder of a New Jersey state trooper.

1983 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan signed a bill establishing a federal holiday on the third Monday of January in honor of civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. 

1984 – Velma Barfield became the first woman to be executed in the U.S. since 1962. She had been convicted of the poisoning death of her boyfriend.

1985 – The South African government imposed severe restrictions on television, radio and newspaper coverage of unrest by both local and foreign journalists.

1986 – The 12-by-16-inch celluloid of a poison apple from Walt Disney’s “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs”” was purchased for $30,800.
Disney movies, music and books

1986 – American hostage David Jacobson was released after being held in Lebanon for 17 months by Shiite Muslims kidnappers.

1989 – Carmen Fasanella retired after 68 years and 243 days of taxicab service in Princeton, NJ.

1993 – Christie Todd Whitman was elected the first woman governor of New Jersey

1995 – The play “Sacrilege” opened.

1995 – The U.S. expelled Daiwa Bank Ltd. for allegedly covering up $1.1 billion in trading losses.

2001 – The computer-animated movie “Monsters, Inc.” opened. The film recorded the best debut ever for an animated film and the 6th best of all time.

2003 – In the U.S., the Episcopal Church diocese consecrated the church’s first openly gay bishop.

on this day 10/31 Defense Department announced elimination of all segregated regiments in the armed forces.


1517 – Martin Luther posted the 95 Theses on the door of the Wittenberg Palace Church. The event marked the start of the Protestant Reformation in Germany.

1864 – Nevada became the 36th state to join the U.S.

1868 – Postmaster General Alexander Williams Randall approved a standard uniform for postal carriers.

1914 – The Ottoman Empire (Turkey) joined the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Bulgaria).

1922 – Benito Mussolini became prime minister of Italy.

1926 – Magician Harry Houdini died of gangrene and peritonitis resulting from a ruptured appendix. His appendix had been damaged twelve days earlier when he had been punched in the stomach by a student unexpectedly. During a lecture Houdini had commented on the strength of his stomach muscles and their ability to withstand hard blows.

1940 – The British air victory in the Battle of Britain prevented Germany from invading Britain.

1941 – Mount Rushmore was declared complete after 14 years of work. At the time the 60-foot busts of U.S. Presidents George WashingtonThomas JeffersonTheodore Roosevelt and Abraham Lincoln were finished.

1941 – The U.S. Navy destroyer Reuben James was torpedoed by a German submarine near Iceland. The U.S. had not yet entered World War II. More than 100 men were killed.

1952 – The U.S. detonated its first hydrogen bomb. 

1954 – The Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN) began a revolt against French rule.

1959 – Defense Department announced elimination of all segregated regiments in the armed forces.

1955 – Britain’s Princess Margaret announced she would not marry Royal Air Force Captain Peter Townsend.

1956 – Rear Admiral G.J. Dufek became the first person to land an airplane at the South Pole. Dufek also became the first person to set foot on the South Pole.

1959 – Lee Harvey Oswald, a former U.S. Marine from Fort Worth, TX, announced that he would never return to the U.S.At the time he was in Moscow, Russia.

1961 – In the Soviet Union, the body of Joseph Stalin was removed from Lenin’s Tomb where it was on public display.

1968 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered a halt to all U.S. bombing of North Vietnam.

1969 – Wal-Mart Discount City stores were incorporated as Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.

1981 – Antiqua and Barbuda became independent of Great Britain.

1983 – The U.S. Defense Department acknowledged that during the U.S. led invasion of Grenada, that a U.S. Navy plane had mistakenly bombed a civilian hospital.

1984 – Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated near her residence by two Sikh security guards. Her son, Rajiv, was sworn in as prime minister.

1992 – In Liberia, it was announced that five American nuns had been killed near Monrovia. Rebels loyal to Charles Taylor were blamed for the murders.

1993 – River Phoenix died at the age of 23 after collapsing outside The Viper Room in Hollywood.

1993 – The play “Wonderful Tennessee” closed after only 9 performances.

1994 – 68 people were killed when an American Eagle ATR-72, plunged into a northern Indiana farm.

1997 – Louise Woodward, British au pair, was sentenced to life in prison after being convicted of second-degree murder in the death of 8-month-old Matthew Eappen. She was released after her sentence was reduced to manslaughter.

1998 – Iraq announced that it was halting all dealings with U.N. arms inspectors. The inspectors were investigating the country’s weapons of mass destruction stemming from Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait in 1990.

1999 – EgyptAir Flight 990 crashed off the coast of Nantucket, MA, killing all 217 people aboard.

1999 – Leaders from the Roman Catholic Church and the Lutheran Church signed the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification. The event ended a centuries-old doctrinal dispute over the nature of faith and salvation.

2001 – Microsoft and the U.S. Justice Department reached a tentative agreement to settle the antitrust case against the software company.

2007 – Google shares hit $700 for the first time.

2008 – Distribution Video Audio, Inc. shipped its final shipment of VHS tapes to stores. The company was the last major United States supplier of pre-recorded VHS tapes.

on this day 10/17 1787-Equal Educational Rights Petition


1739 – Thomas Coram was granted a Royal Charter from George II so a “hospital for the maintenance and education of exposed and deserted young children” in Londond, England.

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1777 – American troops defeated British forces in Saratoga, NY. It was the turning point in the American Revolutionary War.

1787 – On October 17, 1787 Prince Hall submitted, to the State Legislature of Boston, Massachusetts, a petition asking for equal educational rights. His petition was not granted.

1871 – President Grant suspended the writ of habeas corpus and declared martial law in nine South Carolina counties affected by Klan disturbances.

1888 – Capital Savings Bank of Washigton, D.C., the first Black bank, opened in Washington, D.C. The Savings Bank of the Order of True Reformers (Richmond, Va.) was chartered on March 2, 1888.

1888 – The first issue of “National Geographic Magazine” was released at newsstands.

1931 – Al Capone was convicted on income tax evasion and was sentenced to 11 years in prison. He was released in 1939.

1933 – “News-Week” appeared for the first time at newsstands. The name was later changed to “Newsweek.”

1933 – Dr. Albert Einstein moved to Princeton, NJ, after leaving Germany.

1945 – Colonel Juan Peron became the dictator of Argentina after staging a coup in Buenos Aires.

1973 – The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) began an oil-embargo against several countries including the U.S. and Great Britain. The incident stemmed from Western support of Israel when Egypt and Syria attacked the nation on October 6, 1973. The embargo lasted until March of 1974.

1978 – U.S. President Carter signed a bill that restored full U.S. citizenship rights to Confederate President Jefferson Davis.

1979 – Mother Teresa of India was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

1987 – U.S. First Lady Nancy Reagan underwent a modified radical mastectomy at Bethesda Naval Hospital in Maryland.

1989 – An earthquake measuring 7.1 on the Richter Scale hit the San Francisco Bay area in California. The quake caused about 67 deaths, 3,000 injuries, and damages up to $7 billion.

1994 – Israel and Jordan initialed a draft peace treaty.

1994 – The Angolan government and rebels agreed to a peace treaty that ended their 19 years of civil war.

1997 – The remains of revolutionary Ernesto “Che” Guevara were laid to rest in his adopted Cuba, 30 years after his execution in Bolivia.

2000 – In New York City, Madame Tussaud’s Wax Museum opened to the public. The 42nd Street location joined Tussaud’s other exhibitions already in London, Hong Kong, Amsterdam and Las Vegas.

2000 – Patrick Roy (Colorado Avalanche) achieved his 448th victory as a goalie in the NHL. Roy passed Terry Sawchuck to become the record holder for career victories.

2001 – Israel’s tourism minister was killed. A radical Palestinian faction claimed that it had carried out the assassination to avenge the killing of its leader by Israel 2 months earlier.

2001 – Pakistan placed its armed forces on high alert because of troop movements by India in the disputed territory of Kashmir. India said that the movements were part of a normal troop rotation.

2001 – Italian priest Giuseppe “Beppe” Pierantoni was kidnapped by the terrorist group the “Pentagon.” He was released on April 8, 2002.

2003 – In the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration approved a drug, known as memantine, to help people with Alzheimer’s symptoms.

2003 – In Taipei, Taiwan, construction crews finished 1,676-foot-tall-building called Taipei 101. The building was planned to open for business in 2004.

2003 – In northwest England, the Carnforth railway station reopened as a heritage center.