Tag Archives: United Farm Workers

On This Day …. Cesar Estrada Chavez 4/23/93


by UFW

The Story of Cesar Chavez
THE BEGINNING

The story of Cesar Estrada Chavez begins near Yuma, Arizona. Cesar was born on March 31, 1927.

He was named after his grandfather, Cesario. Regrettably, the story of Cesar Estrada Chavez also ends near Yuma, Arizona. He passed away on April 23, 1993, in San Luis, a small village near Yuma, Arizona.

He learned about justice or rather injustice early in his life. Cesar grew up in Arizona; the small adobe home, where Cesar was born was swindled from them by dishonest Anglos. Cesar’s father agreed to clear eighty acres of land and in exchange he would receive the deed to forty acres of land that adjoined the home. The agreement was broken and the land sold to a man named Justus Jackson. Cesar’s dad went to a lawyer who advised him to borrow money and buy the land.  Later when Cesar’s father could not pay the interest on the  loan the lawyer bought back the land and sold it to the original owner. Cesar learned a lesson about injustice that he would never forget. Later, he would say, The love for justice that  is in us is not only the best part of our being but it is also the most true to our nature.

            In 1938 he and his family moved to California. He lived in La Colonia Barrio in Oxnard for a short period, returning to Arizona several months later. They returned to California in June 1939 and this time settled in San Jose. They lived in the barrio called Sal Si Puedes -“Get Out If You Can.” Cesar thought the only way to get out of the circle of poverty was to work his way up and send the kids to college.  He and his family worked in the fields of California from Brawley to Oxnard, Atascadero, Gonzales, King City, Salinas, McFarland, Delano Wasco, Selma, Kingsburg, and Mendota.

He did not like school as a child, probably because he spoke only Spanish at home. The teachers were mostly Anglo and only spoke English. Spanish was forbidden in school. He remembers being punished with a ruler to his knuckles for violating the rule. He also remembers that some schools were segregated and he felt that in the integrated schools he was like a monkey in a cage. He remembers having to listen to a lot of racist remarks. He remembers seeing signs that read whites only. He and his brother, Richard, attended thirty-seven  schools. He felt that education had nothing to do with his farm worker/migrant way of life. In 1942 he graduated from the eighth grade. Because his father, Librado, had been in an accident and because he did not want his mother, Juana, to work in the fields, he could not to go to high school, and instead became a migrant farm worker.

While his childhood school education was not the best, later in life, education was his passion. The walls of his office in La Paz (United Farm Worker Headquarters ) are lined with hundreds of books ranging from philosophy, economics, cooperatives, and unions, to biographies on Gandhi and the Kennedys’. He believed that, “The end of all education should surely be service to others,” a belief that he practiced until his untimely death.

He joined the U.S. Navy, which was then segregated, in 1946, at the age of 19, and served for two years.

In 1948 Cesar married Helen Fabela. They honeymooned in California by visiting all the California Missions from Sonoma to San Diego (again the influence of education). They settled in Delano and started their family. First Fernando, then Sylvia, then Linda, and five  more children were to follow.

Cesar returned to San Jose where he met and was influenced by Father Donald McDonnell. They talked about farm workers and strikes. Cesar began reading about St. Francis and Gandhi and nonviolence. After Father McDonnell came another very influential person, Fred Ross.

Cesar became an organizer for Ross’ organization, the Community Service Organization – CSO. His first task was voter registration.

THE UNITED FARM WORKERS IS BORN

In 1962 Cesar founded the National Farm Workers Association, later to become the United Farm Workers – the UFW. He was joined by Dolores Huerta and the union was born. That same year Richard Chavez designed the UFW Eagle and Cesar chose the black and red colors. Cesar told the story of the birth of the eagle. He asked Richard to design the flag, but Richard could not make an eagle that he liked. Finally he sketched one on a piece of brown wrapping paper. He then squared off the wing edges so that the eagle would be easier for union members to draw on the handmade red flags that would give courage to the farm workers with their own powerful symbol. Cesar made reference to the flag by stating, “A symbol is an important thing. That is why we chose an Aztec eagle. It gives pride . . . When people see it they know it means dignity.”

For a long time in 1962, there were very few union dues paying members.  By 1970 the UFW got grape growers to accept union contracts and had             effectively organized most of that industry, at one point in time claiming 50,000 dues paying members. The reason was Cesar Chavez’s  tireless leadership and nonviolent tactics that included the Delano  grape strike, his fasts that focused national attention on farm workers  problems, and the 340-mile march from Delano to Sacramento in 1966.  The farm workers and supporters carried banners with the black eagle  with HUELGA (strike) and VIVA LA CAUSA (Long live our cause). The  marchers wanted the state government to pass laws which would permit farm workers to organize into a union and allow collective bargaining  agreements. Cesar made people aware of the struggles of farm workers  for better pay and safer working conditions. He succeeded through             nonviolent tactics (boycotts, pickets, and strikes). Cesar Chavez  and the union sought recognition of the importance and dignity of  all farm workers.

It was the beginning of La Causa a cause that was supported by  organized labor, religious groups, minorities, and students. Cesar Chavez had the foresight to train his union workers and then to  send many of them into the cities where they were to use the boycott and picket as their weapon.

Cesar was willing to sacrifice his own life so that the union would  continue and that violence was not used. Cesar fasted many times.  In 1968 Cesar went on a water only, 25 day fast. He repeated the  fast in 1972 for 24 days, and again in 1988, this time for 36 days.  What motivated him to do this? He said, Farm workers everywhere  are angry and worried that we cannot win without violence. We have proved it before through persistence, hard work, faith and willingness  to sacrifice. We can win and keep our own self-respect and build  a great union that will secure the spirit of all people if we do  it through a rededication and recommitment to the struggle for justice  through nonviolence.

THE FAST

Many events precipitated the fast, especially the terrible suffering of the farm workers and their children,                     the crushing of farm worker rights, the dangers of pesticides,  and the denial of fair and free elections.

Cesar said about the fast, ” A fast is first and foremost personal. It is a fast for the purification of my own body, mind, and soul. The fast is also a heartfelt prayer for purification and strengthening for all those who work beside me in the farm worker movement. The fast is also an act of penance for those in positions of moral authority and for all men and women activists who know what is right and just, who know that they could and should do more. The fast is finally a declaration of non-cooperation with supermarkets who promote and sell and profit from California table grapes. During the past few years I have been studying the plague of pesticides on our land and our food,” Cesar continued “The evil is far greater than even I had thought it to be, it threatens to choke out the life of our people and also the life system that supports us all. This solution to this deadly crisis will not be found in the arrogance of the powerful, but in  solidarity with the weak and helpless. I pray to God that this fast will be a preparation for a multitude of simple deeds for justice. Carried out by men and women whose hearts  are focused on the suffering of the poor and who yearn, with us, for a better world. Together, all things are possible.”

Cesar Chavez completed his 36-day Fast for Life on August 21, 1988. The Reverend Jesse Jackson took up where Cesar left off, fasting on water for three days before passing on the fast to celebrities  and leaders. The fast was passed to Martin Sheen, actor; the Reverend  J. Lowery, President SCLC; Edward Olmos, actor; Emilio Estevez,  actor; Kerry Kennedy, daughter of Robert Kennedy, Peter Chacon,  legislator, Julie Carmen, actress; Danny Glover, actor; Carly Simon,  singer; and Whoopi Goldberg, actress.

THE DEATH OF CESAR CHAVEZ

Cesar Estrada Chavez died peacefully in his sleep on April 23, 1993 near Yuma, Arizona, a short distance from the small family farm in the Gila River Valley where he was born more than 66 years before.The founder and president of the United Farm Workers of America, AFL-CIO was in Yuma helping UFW attorneys defend the union against a lawsuit brought by Bruce Church Inc., a giant Salinas,  Calif.-based lettuce and vegetable producer. Church demanded that the farm workers pay millions of dollars in damages resulting  from a UFW boycott of its lettuce during the 1980’s. Rather than bring the legal action in a state where the boycott actually  took place, such as California or New York, Church “shopped around” for a friendly court in conservative, agribusiness-dominated Arizona-where there had been no boycott activity.

“Cesar gave his last ounce of strength defending the farm workers  in this case,” stated his successor, UFW President Arturo Rodriguez,  who was with him in Arizona during the trial. He died standing up  for their First Amendment right to speak out for themselves. He believed in his heart that the farm workers were right in boycotting Bruce Church Inc. lettuce during the l980’s and he was determined  to prove that in court.” (When the second multimillion dollar judgment  for Church was later thrown out by an appeal’s court, the company  signed a UFW contract in May 1996.

After the trial recessed at about 3 p.m. on Thursday, April 22,  Cesar spent part of the afternoon driving through Latino neighborhoods  in Yuma that he knew as a child. Many Chavezes still live in the area.

He arrived about 6 p.m. in San Luis, Arizona-about 20 miles from Yuma, at the modest concrete-block home of Dofla Maria Hau, a former  farm worker and longtime friend. Cesar and eight other UFW leaders  and staff were staying at her house in a poor farm worker neighborhood not far from the Mexican border.

Cesar ate dinner at around 9 p.m. and presided over a brief meeting  to review the day’s events. He had just finished two days of often grueling examination by attorneys for Bruce Church Inc.

He talked to his colleagues about taking care of themselves-a recent  recurring theme with Cesar because he was well aware of the long hours required from him and other union officers and staff. Still,  he was in good spirits despite being exhausted after prolonged questioning on the witness stand; he complained about feeling some weakness  when doing his evening exercises.

The UFW founder went to bed at about 10 or 10:30 p.m. A union staff  member said he later saw a reading light shining from Cesar’s room.

The light was still on at 6 a.m. the next morning. That was not  seen as unusual. Cesar usually woke up in the early hours of the  morning well before dawn to read, write or meditate.

When he had not come out by 9 a.m., his colleagues entered his  bedroom found that Cesar had died apparently, according to authorities,  at night in his sleep.

He was found lying on his back with his head turned to the left. His shoes were off and he still wore his clothes from the day before. In his right hand was a book on Native American crafts. There was  a peaceful smile on his face.

THE LAST MARCH WITH CESAR CHAVEZ

On April 29, 1993, Cesar Estrada  Chavez was honored in death by those he led in life. More than  50,000 mourners came to honor the charismatic labor leader at the site of his first public fast in 1968 and his last in 1988, the United Farm Workers Delano Field Office at “Forty Acres.”It was the largest funeral of any labor leader in the history of the U.S. They came in caravans from Florida to California to pay respect to a man whose strength was in his simplicity.Farm workers, family members, friends and union staff took turns standing vigil over the plain pine coffin which held the body of Cesar Chavez. Among the honor guard were many                     celebrities who had supported Chavez throughout his years  of struggle to better the lot of farmworkers throughout America.

Many of the mourners had marched side by side with Chavez during his tumultuous years in the vineyards and farms of America. For  the last time, they came to march by the side of the man who had taught them to stand up for their rights, through nonviolent protest and collective bargaining.

Cardinal Roger M. Mahoney, who celebrated the funeral mass, called  Chavez “a special prophet for the worlds’ farm workers.” Pall bearers,   including crews of these workers, Chavez children and grandchildren,  then carried their fallen leader, resting at last, from the Memorial  Park to Forty Acres.

The death of Chavez marked an era of dramatic changes in American agriculture. His contributions would be eroded, and others would have to shoulder the burden of his work. But, Cesar Chavez, who insisted that those who labor in the earth were entitled to share fairly in the rewards of their toil, would never be forgotten.

As Luis Valdez said, “Cesar, we have come to plant your heart like a seed . . . the farm workers shall harvest in the seed of your  memory.”
              FINAL RESTING PLACE/FINAL RECOGNITION

The body of Cesar Chavez was taken to La Paz, the UFW’s California headquarters, by his family and UFW leadership. He was laid to rest near a bed of roses, in front of his office.On August 8, 1994, at a White House ceremony, Helen Chavez, Cesar’s widow, accepted the Medal of Freedom for her late  husband from President Clinton. In the citation accompanying America’s highest civilian honor which was awarded posthumously, the President lauded Chavez for having “faced formidable,often violent opposition with dignity and nonviolence.And he was victorious. Cesar Chavez left our world better  than he found it, and his legacy inspires us still. He was for his own people a Moses figure,” the President declared. “The farm workers who labored in the fields and yearned for  respect and self-sufficiency pinned their hopes on this remarkable  man who, with faith and discipline, soft spoken humility and amazing inner strength, led a very courageous life”

The citation accompanying the award noted how Chavez was a farm worker from childhood who “possessed a deep personal understanding  of the plight of migrant workers, and he labored all his years to lift their lives.” During his lifetime, Chavez never earned more   than $5,000 a year. The late Senator Robert Kennedy called him “one of the heroic figures of our time.”

Chavez’s successor, UFW President Arturo Rodriguez, thanked the president on behalf of the United Farm Workers and said, “Every day in California and in other states where farm workers are organizing,  Cesar Chavez lives in their hearts. Cesar lives wherever Americans’ he inspired work nonviolently for social change.”

90 year old punished for feeding the homeless … reminder


Ft. Lauderdale City Officials: Drop the charges against 90-year-old Arnold Abbott for feeding the homeless

Nailah Washington
West Palm Beach, Florida

Stop the no blankets for the homeless ordinance! Support change.org


Mayor Hayward endorses amendments to ordinance

FatherNathan Monk

Petition Organizer
For the first time in recent memory, parts of Florida will be under a state of emergency due to winter weather. Beginning tomorrow, temperatures will drop as freezing rain and sleet move in, roadways will become icy, and snowfall is expected. All of this will happen on top of already wet ground, due to rain happening throughout the day today.

However, city officials are refusing to examine an ordinance they passed last year making it illegal for the homeless to even use a blanket to cover themselves. Last week at the regular council meeting, the council members were requested by members of the public and another council person, to review the ordinance and vote in a more humane way. They refused.

Two years ago, when the city council first considered these ordinances at the request of the mayor, and hundreds of people showed up in protest, the city refused to listen citing, “The silent majority.” that wasn’t present as their reason for moving forward on the ordinance.

As this extreme freeze comes into the panhandle, it will be illegal for the homeless to seek shelter from the cold. This is unconscionable and our city leaders have refused to respond to reasonable requests for them to accommodate the homeless in any way. I am asking for everyone on my page to take the time to share this post, write the mayor and council, and forward this to your favorite media outlet.

The city may not listen to us, but hopefully they will listen if people around the world let them know how Pensacola will be viewed if they do not overturn this inhumane ordinance.

Write the mayor: mayorhayward@cityofpensacola.com

Write the council: jcannada-wynn@cityofpensacola.com, mpratt@cityofpensacola.com, pcwu@cityofpensacola.com, smyers@cityofpensacola.com, aterhaar@cityofpensacola.com, ljohnson@cityofpensacola.com, gwingate@cityofpensacola.com, bspencer@cityofpensacola.com, cbare@cityofpensacola.com

Pensacola Mayor Ashton Hayward endorses proposed amendments to ordinance allowing for blankets. Awaiting council vote on Thursday 13th.

Last year, in an effort to protect the aesthetics, public health, and safety of our community, the City Council adopted an ordinance which prohibits camping on public property. Next week, the Council will consider amending that ordinance to remove the prohibition on the use of cover while sleeping outdoors.

Homeless and in College ~~ reminder


I know firsthand how hard it is to be a homeless college student. Please sign my petition calling on Congress to pass landmark legislation that would make it easier for homeless kids like me to go to college

by Jessie McCormick

.As a formerly homeless young person, I’m so proud to be in my final year attending college. It is estimated that only one out of four homeless youth graduates from high school, so achieving a post-secondary education is quite an accomplishment. However, the journey has not been easy.

I fought through my circumstances to go to college, because I knew that was my best chance for a road out of poverty. Now I’m fighting to make it easier for other young people like me to go to college, too.

The thousands of students who are homeless or foster youth in college often have to worry about where they will live during breaks when campus housing shuts down, often right before midterms or finals. I’ve heard about how some must jump through hoops to “prove” they are homeless every year or risk losing financial aid. And sometimes they cannot qualify for in-state tuition because they have no address. The list of barriers goes on and on, on top of the obvious: it’s really hard to get to college in the first place when you don’t even have a home.

Luckily, there is a new bill in Congress, the Higher Education Access and Success for Homeless and Foster Youth Act, that would make it much easier for students like me to go to college. Will you sign the Change.org petition I started with two other homeless students urging Congress to pass this landmark legislation?

Being homeless in college hasn’t been easy. Other students go home to their families for Christmas, but I would need to spend weeks trying to find a housing plan for the coldest time of year. Sometimes, offers to go home with friends would fall through last minute. Several years, I spent parts or all of school breaks outside or wandering around my city of Grand Rapids.

Finally, I started a successful campaign on Change.org to change my school’s policies about break housing — and I am proud to say that my college, Aquinas College, is now a leader in taking the initiative to develop safe and effective solutions for students like me.

I have seen firsthand how powerful collective action can be, but I have friends who continue to spend their breaks wandering the streets, and I have seen dozens of my fellow homeless students drop out of their studies after encountering traumatic situations. We need to harness that power of collective action now that this crucial legislation has its first real chance of passing Congress.

Will you sign our petition calling on Congress to pass the bill that would make it much easier for homeless and foster kids to go to college?

I am just one student, and there are thousands of young people in your own community who are waiting for their chance to shine. On behalf of all of us, please consider giving us our opportunity to rise above.

Thank you,

Jessie McCormick
Grand Rapids, Michigan

South Carolina …do you have a history of exiling the Homeless ? reminder


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

South Carolina City Approves Plan To Exile Its Homeless

 

via @thinkprogress